"The problem with alternative treatments for any medical problem, including erectile dysfunction, is that until you have about 20 well-controlled studies over several years, you really don't know what you are working with," cautions Richard Harris, MD, a urologist at Gottlieb Memorial Hospital, part of the Loyola University Health System in Chicago.
The Science: Chemicals inside these plants called ginsenosides are thought to ramp up the physiological pathway that makes nitric oxide, the neurotransmitter that gets the blood flowing during penile erection. Some studies support that idea: one found that ginsenoside-rich ginseng berry extracts relaxed smooth muscle inside rabbit erectile tissue. But so far there haven’t been high-quality double-blind and randomized trials of the chemicals’ effect on humans. The jury’s still out on whether ginsenosides have any effect on people at all, or (if they do) whether they work as well as medications like Viagra.
This study was carried out in areas in and around Queen Elizabeth Biosphere Reserve (QEBR) and some other sub counties such as Katerera, Kichwamba and Kitagata in Bushenyi and Munkunyu, Kayonza and Kitsinga in Kasese districts in Western Uganda. The sampling sites were located in the parishes around the biosphere reserve, and in the selected fishing villages within the biosphere reserve. These included, Katwe, Mweya, Katunguru, Hamukungu, Kahendero and Kayanja Fishing Villages and many other villages.
Thirty-three medicinal plants both cultivated (Table 1) and wild harvested (Table 2) were documented and identified in the area of study. In the description below these results of these two table are combined as presented below. All the identified medicinal plants in both tables belong to 25 families and 30 genera. The family Rubiaceae (4) is the most represented followed by Alliaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Papilionaceae and Caesalpinaceae families which have two species each and the rest with one species. The composition is that 42.4% are shrubs, 39.4% herbs and herb climbers and 18.2% trees. Leaves (57.6%) are the commonest plant parts followed by roots (42.1%), barks (27.3%) and the rest of the plant parts harvested have less than 10% of the parts harvested. From Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Rhus vulgaris, Warburgia ugandensis, Cleome gynandra and Tarenna graveolens, three different plant parts, are harvested for use in sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction. In the case of Impetiens species and Urtica massaica, the whole plants are harvested while the rest of the species one or two different plant parts are used. The conservation status of these documented plants is that 27.3% are cultivated while 72.7% are collected from wild places. The common methods of plant medicine preparation included boiling, chewing, pounding, cooking, roasting and smoking. The commonest method of herbal administration was by oral means as food, herbal teas or by mixing in several drinks including locally made beer.

The semi-structured interviews and discussions were held with the specialist resource users and other knowledgeable people on particular ailments by use of interview schedules for each respondent. Interviewed people were mainly the herbalists (both men and women) and TBAs. In this selection to some extent, ethnic groups were recorded where possible because different people use the same plants differently. The time and place of interviews were arranged according to the schedules of the respondent. Depending on where the interviews and discussions were held, recording was done immediately or afterwards or appointments were made for more details in a more convenient place arranged with the respondent. Key informants were identified and later interviewed separately and even followed for further details. Some of the key questions asked included, name of the respondents, the village or parish or sub-county he or she was coming from, diseases treated, plant local names used, parts harvested, methods of preparation and administration. In addition, ingredients and incantations with which the plants are used for preparation and where the herbal medicines were harvested were documented.


Size matters, so get slim and stay slim. A trim waistline is one good defense — a man with a 42-inch waist is 50% more likely to have ED than one with a 32-inch waist. Losing weight can help fight erectile dysfunction, so getting to a healthy weight and staying there is another good strategy for avoiding or fixing ED. Obesity raises risks for vascular disease and diabetes, two major causes of ED. And excess fat interferes with several hormones that may be part of the problem as well.

There is a wide range of methods including different medications for healing sexual disabilities in men. But nowadays more and more men are refusing from the use of outdated erectile dysfunction treatment techniques and synthetic medications. That’s why men replace them with the latest natural remedies able to gently cure the impairment of erectile function without the interference with bodily functions. Male Extra and VigRX belong to such remedies. These supplements offer the most innovative solution for the elimination of erectile dysfunction symptoms without any harm to the men’s health. These products are highly effective because they contain only the natural, fully safe active substances.
L-arginine, or arginine, is an amino acid found in red meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products that helps expand blood vessels and increase blood flow. “The body uses this semi-essential amino acid as the primary building block for nitric oxide,” explains Harry Fisch, M.D., clinical professor of urology and reproductive medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College/New York Presbyterian Hospital.
Prior to taking any medication, whether it is prescribed, over the counter, or herbal, you should always talk to your doctors. While these herbs are all-natural, they can also naturally affect your body (sometimes negatively) when acting with other medications. To keep your body healthy and find a solution to your erectile dysfunction, always check with your doctor first before trying anything new.
The utilisation of ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge is vital in male sexual reproductive health care delivery in western Uganda. Reproductive health care is the second most prevalent health care problem in Africa. However, this concept of reproductive health care has been focusing mainly on women disregarding men. Thus, some diseases such as sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction that deserve mention are regarded as petty though important in economic productivity, family stability and sexually transmitted diseases control including HIV/AIDS.

Most sincere gratitude to the sponsors, Third World Organisation for Women in Sciences (TWOWS), NUFU Medicinal plants Project through Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Makerere University, UNESCO-MAB Young Scientist Research Award, 2000, Gender studies, Makerere University and WHO-Uganda. The Staff of Queen Elizabeth National Park, Field assistants, local leaders, the resource users and all respondents, particularly the TBAs and traditional healers in Bushenyi, Mbarara and Kasese Districts who provided the information.
Sildenafil citrate, tadalafil and vardenafil hydrochloride are contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to any organic nitrates (oral, sublingual, transdermal or by inhalation) due to the risk of developing potentially life-threatening hypotension. Concomitant use of PDE-5 inhibitors is contraindicated with HIV protease inhihibitors (indinavir, ritinovir, saquinavir) as well as ketoconazole, itraconazole, cimetidine and erythromycin, because these drugs are potent inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4 and can raise the plasma levels of PDE-5 inhibitors. Coadministration of PDE-5 inhibitors to patients taking alpha-adrenergic blockers such as alfluzocin or tamsulosin may lead to symptomatic postural hypotension, including dizziness and lighheadedness in some individuals.

Tufan capsules are reckoned as the best ED pills as these possess only natural herbs as ingredients. Using Tufan herbal ED pills is safe as the herbs present in these pills are highly effective and completely safe; these are the best ED pills as these are capable of providing complete natural treatment by supplementing wide range of herbs which address all the possible causes of the problem.
The medicinal plants used such as Citropsis articulata, Cannabis sativa, Cleome gynandra and Cola acuminata are frequently utilized. Some of these plants (Citropsis articulata, Cola acuminate) are already under sale for treating these conditions. Their propagation is on-going in western Uganda in places like Rukararwe Partnership Workshop for Rural Development Centre in Bushenyi District36 and researchers personal experience at Rukararwe. Rukararwe is a non-governmental organisation that is processing herbs, running a famous herbal clinic and with a medicinal plants arboretum and medicinal plants agro-forestry.
The herbal medicines used in the management of sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction are mainly prepared by pounding, chewing and boiling and are mainly orally administered. The traditional healers treat sexual impotence and ED by prescribing some of these herbs in tea or using local beers, fermented milk and porridge. Some herbs are herbs are roasted or smoked such as coffee before administration. The dispensing of herbal medicines used in sexual impotence and ED using local beers, fermented milk and porridge possibly the alcoholic content improves on the kind of active chemicals extracted than water alone12.
However, other studies have highlighted that men who weren’t on antidepressants showed no signs of improvement. With that said, this herb may be great to try if you’re experiencing ED and also on antidepressants. If not, try some of the other herbs on this list first and see if you like them more. You may get better results elsewhere! Also, this herb is not recommended for men who are on blood thinning medication, as this herb has been known to make people bleed more.
Unsurprisingly, the two online outlets are fully stocked with sketchy solutions for the age-old issue of reinvigorating the male libido. Regardless of their packaging and marketing, when you read the fine print, you can see that these products contain alternative medicine staples like Cordyceps, Ashwagandha, and Maca. But do any of these herbs actually work?  
Yohimbine is the principal alkaloid of the bark of the West African evergreen P johimbe (formerly known as C johimbe), family Rubiaceae. The main active chemical present in P johimbe bark is yohimbine hydrochloride (an indole alkaloid), which has stimulant and aphrodisiac effects. However, the levels of yohimbine that are present in P johimbe bark extract are variable and often very low. Therefore, although P johimbe bark has traditionally been used to treat ED [38], there is insufficient scientific evidence to form a definitive conclusion in this area. It is an antagonist of α2-receptors and has no direct relation to erection. It acts as a sex motivation stimulant. Yohimbine has been used as both an over-the-counter dietary supplement in the form of an herbal extract, and as a prescription medicine in purified form for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Yohimbine 20 mg or adjusted dose has been found to be effective in the treatment of orgasmic dysfunction. Yohimbine was recently associated as a treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus in animal and human models carrying polymorphisms of the alpha-2A adrenergic receptor gene [39]. The National Institutes of Health states that yohimbine hydrochloride is the standardized form of yohimbine that is available as a prescription medicine in the United States, and has been shown in human studies to be effective in the treatment of male impotence. Yohimbine hydrochloride USP has been used to treat ED. Controlled studies suggest that it is not always an effective treatment for impotence, and evidence of increased sex drive (libido) is anecdotal only. It cannot be excluded that orally administered yohimbine can have a beneficial effect in some patients with ED. The conflicting results available may be attributed to differences in drug design, patient selection and definition of positive response. Yohimbine has been shown to be effective in the reversal of sexual satiety and exhaustion in male rats, and has also been shown to increase the volume of ejaculated semen in dogs, with the effect lasting at least 5 h after administration. Yohimbine has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of orgasmic dysfunction in men, and has also been used for the treatment of sexual side effects caused by some antidepressants, and female hyposexual disorder. Yohimbine has significant side effects, such as anxiety reactions. Higher doses of oral yohimbine may create numerous side effects, such as rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, overstimulation, insomnia and/or sleeplessness. More serious adverse effects may include seizures and renal failure. Yohimbine should not be consumed by individuals with liver, kidney or heart disease, or psychological disorders. The therapeutic index of yohimbine is low; the range between an effective dose and a dangerous dose is very narrow. Side effects include gastrointestinal upset, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia and frequent urination [40].
Nitric oxide is made internally from L-arginine, which is an amino acid found in red meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products. In other words, L-arginine is the building block for nitric oxide, which is essential for erections. A lack of one can lead to a lack of the other. However, there’s a problem when it comes to treating L-arginine deficiency with supplements.
"Ikawe has really boosted my sex drive as you said it would! My wife used to complain that I was never interested. She said her friends always complained that their husbands wanted too much sex but she hardly got any. Seriously - it was affecting my marriage. After taking Ikawe for 10 days I could already feel the difference. I also have much more energy." - Derrick S., USA
Generally speaking, the juice and other extracts from this are always in high demand for treating ED. This extract is increasing in popularity because it is very rich in vital nutrients. Better still; some researchers also admit that it facilitates the expansion of arteries and sustain supply. For its holistic health advantages, it is recommended for you and other victims of ED.
The Plant: A low-growing flowering annual that’s originally from southern Europe but is now an invasive weed in parts of the United States and Australia. The plant’s common names, like puncturevine or devil’s thorns, tells you exactly why most people hate it: it drops sharp, spiny seed pods that lie in wait for unsuspecting victims to step on them. It’s also toxic to grazing livestock like sheep.
Males gain erection due to hydraulic effect of blood, when brain senses arousal it rushes blood towards male genital organ where blood is absorbed by tissues which grow stiff and bigger to cause erection. Males having hindrances in this process due to poor sensation, blocked blood vessels, weak nerves, weak tissues or lethargic reproductive system are unable to gain erection. Tufan are reckoned as the best ED pills as these remove all sorts of hindrances to provide natural erectile dysfunction treatment, and as these are herbal ED pills hence do not cast any side effects.
Ginseng (Figures 4,​,55): this is an adaptogenic herb touted to have boosted the potency of Ottoman sultans. It increases the body’s ability to handle environmental stresses and combat biochemical imbalances. It energizes when one is fatigue and calms when overanxious. It also increases sex related hormones like testosterone and enhances sexual responses in men and women. It thus acts as a tonic, stimulant and aphrodisiac (4,5).
Currently, there are four orally active drugs are available to treat ED. These include: sildenafil citrate (Viagra [Pfizer, USA]), vardenafil hydrochloride (Levitra [Bayer, Germany]), tadalafil (Cialis [Eli Lilly, USA]) and avanafil (Stendra, Spedra [Vivus Inc, USA]). These drugs inhibit the enzyme phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5), which is responsible for the hydrolysis of cGMP. PDE-5 inhibitors and cGMP act as effectors of dilation of smooth muscle of cavernosal bodies. PDE-5 inhibitors are contraindicated in patients taking any kind of nitrate therapy for angina, and may not be appropriate for men with certain health conditions, such as severe heart disease, heart failure, history of stroke or heart attack, uncontrolled high blood pressure or diabetes, and patients with pigmental retinopathy. PDE-5 inhibitors are less effective in men with diabetes and men who have been treated for prostate cancer. PDE-5 inhibitors are also not effective in men with retinitis pigmentosa, a genetic disease involving PDE-5 deficiency. The common side effects of PDE-5 inhibitors include gastrointestinal upset, headache, nasal congestion, back pain and dizziness. The PDE-5 inhibitors may interact with other medications including antihypertension drugs. Nonetheless, the PDE-5 inhibitors are generally safe and effective for most men. The primary mechanism of action of these drugs is through the mediation of NO. NO is one of the key molecules involved in ED. It is a short-lived, highly permeable, pleiotropic, gaseous molecule, secreted from the postganglionic cavernosal parasympathetic nerves, endothelium of the cavernosal blood vessels, platelets in the cavernosal sinuses and phagocytic cells (monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils). NO acts on platelets to inhibit platelets adhesion and aggregation. NO causes relaxation of the smooth muscle of the cavernosal blood vessels of the penis, leading to vasodilation, tumescence and stimulation. Release of NO in the corpus cavernosum of the penis during stimulation activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which results in increased levels of cGMP, producing smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum and resulting in increased blood flow (5). NO is mainly produced from cavernosal nerves, which are nonadrenergic, noncholinergic nerves within the penis, and acting via its second messenger cGMP. It has been suggested that maintaining normal body weight and mild exercise, as well as dietary supplementation of folic acid, zinc, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin E and L-arginine, a precursor of NO, can support the biochemical pathway leading to NO release [6]. NO is an effector molecule that is involved in a number of intracellular functions such as vasorelaxation, endothelial regeneration, inhibition of leukocyte chemotaxis and platelet adhesion [7]. A small proportion of autonomic nerves do not release either Ach or norepinephrine [8]. For example, the cavernous nerves predominantly release NO in the penis. The exact mechanism is not known, but it is believed to be through increased intracellular calcium. Another gaseous molecule produced in the corpora cavernosa is hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which is also known to be involved in erectile function [9]. H2S activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels in smooth muscle cells. Some reports indicate that NO acts in large vessels and H2S in small vessels. A high level of tumour necrosis factor-alpha has been shown in ED patients [10]. Although current ED therapies using PDE-5 inhibitors are safe and effective, approximately 40% of ED patients do not respond to currently available treatment [11,12]. For these patients, herbal therapy may be useful.

Red Ginseng — One small randomized trial found evidence that red ginseng may offer modest improvements in ED symptoms (as compared with placebo). A meta-anaylsis published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology states, “Traditionally red ginseng has been used to restore and enhance normal well-being, and is often referred to as an adaptogenic….Possible mechanisms of action of red ginseng include hormonal effects similar to those of testosterone. Others have postulated that red ginseng might induce relaxation of the smooth muscles.”  (5)
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There is a wide range of methods including different medications for healing sexual disabilities in men. But nowadays more and more men are refusing from the use of outdated erectile dysfunction treatment techniques and synthetic medications. That’s why men replace them with the latest natural remedies able to gently cure the impairment of erectile function without the interference with bodily functions. Male Extra and VigRX belong to such remedies. These supplements offer the most innovative solution for the elimination of erectile dysfunction symptoms without any harm to the men’s health. These products are highly effective because they contain only the natural, fully safe active substances.
However, Yohimbine cancause some pretty unsatisfactory side effects, even if it is really effective for those who have erectile dysfunction. These side effects range from something minor like stomach cramps to something major like nausea or diarrhea. Yohimbine also shouldn’t be taken with other medications, such as high blood pressure pills and Viagra. You should always talk to your doctor before taking an herb to help with your erectile dysfunction so that you get the most expert knowledge pertaining to your exact situation.
The basis of ED herbal therapies is that they are anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory, and can stimulate testosterone production. On the other hand, the synthetic drugs act via NO. The principal mediator of the relaxation of corporal smooth muscle of the penis has been shown to be NO, which is released mainly from parasympathetic nerves and endothelium [13]. NO is believed to relax the corporal smooth muscle by activating soluble guanylate cyclase to increase cGMP content [14,15]. Penile rigidity depends on maximizing inflow of blood while minimizing outflow [6]. The increased blood flow in the cavernous sinuses puts pressure on the walls of the surrounding veins, causing the lumen of the veins narrow, temporarily interfering with the flow of blood but causing tumescence. Normally, the parasympathetic nerve produces Ach. Ach acts on muscarinic receptors and nicotinic cholinergic receptors. When the parasympathetic nerve is stimulated, preganglionic neurons release Ach at the ganglion, which acts on nicotinic receptors on postganglionic receptors. Postganglionic neurons then release Ach to stimulate muscarinic receptors of the target organs. The muscarinic receptor M3, present in the endothelial cells and smooth muscle, is activated, and the M2 receptor in the heart may also be activated. This may result in the production of Ach, which can cause endothelial cells to produce NO. Ach released from postganglionic parasympathetic nerves acting through G-protein-mediated muscarinic receptors and nicotinic cholinergic receptors helps to release NO. Normally, M1, M2 and M3 receptors are found in secretory glands, heart, smooth muscle and endothelial cells, respectively. M1, M2 and M3 receptors cause activation of phospholipase C and generate inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, which increase calcium. Activation of M4 may inhibit adenylate cyclase, decreasing the messenger cyclic AMP. This mechanism may be involved in the relaxation and contraction of cavernosal smooth muscle cells.

The Science: Male rats with damaged penile nerves had better erectile responses after they were given large doses of purified icariin, but as of yet no one has done the experiments to see whether the compound works in humans. Still, as far as the herb goes, it doesn’t really matter: horny goat weed doesn’t contain enough icariin to get even the smallest rise out of a rat.


Shindel, A. W., Xin, Z.-C., Lin, G., Fandel, T. M., Huang, Y.-C., Banie, L., … Lue, T. F. (2010, February 5). Erectogenic and neurotrophic effects of icariin, a purified extract of horny goat weed (Epimedium spp.) in vitro and in vivo. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7(4), 1518-1528. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01699.x/full
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