The medical ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge were collected by visiting traditional healers and documenting the medicinal plants used and other socio-cultural aspects allied with sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction. The methods used to collect the relevant information regarding the medicinal plants used included informal and formal discussions, field visits and focused semi-structured interviews.

W somnifera (ashwagandha), also referred to as winter cherry (family Solanaceae), grows in Africa, the Mediterranean, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, South Africa, Egypt, Morocco, Congo and Jordan [36]. The roots of the plant contain steroid alkaloids and steroidal lactone, which are the main constituents of ashwagandha; these compounds are referred to as withanolides. Among the various alkaloids, withnine is the main constituent. The other alkaloids are somniferin, somnine, somniferine, withananine, pseudowithanine, tropine, pseudotropine, cuscohygrine, anferine and anhydrine. Two acyl steryl glucosides (sitoindoside VII and sitoindoside VIII) have been isolated from the root. The withanolides contain a C28 steroidal nucleus with a C9 side chain and six-membered lactone rings. Ashwagandha root also contains flavonoids and many ingredients of the withanolide class. It has several medicinal applications (aphrodisiac, liver tonic, anti-inflammatory agent, astringent), and is used to treat bronchitis, asthma, ulcers, insomnia, senility and dementia. Clinical trials and studies involving animal models support the use of ashwagandha for anxiety, cognitive and neurological disorders, inflammation and Parkinson’s disease. It also provides cryoprotective benefits to patients undergoing radiation and chemotherapy, and shows beneficial effects for nervous exhaustion. W somnifera is used as an aphrodisiac, sedative and rejuvenative, and is also used to treat chronic fatigue, dehydration, bone weakness, muscle weakness, loose teeth, impotency, premature ejaculation, debility, constipation, senility, rheumatism, nervous exhaustion, memory loss, drug withdrawal symptoms, anxiety and arthritis pain in the knee. Extracts from W somnifera inhibit transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB); thus, it acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. This has been attributed to its ability to interact with IKKB, a kinase that is responsible for the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and activation of inflammatory signalling pathways [37].
Penile implants - are generally used if physical damage (like an accident) makes the anatomical parts needed for an erection not work. These are inserted by surgery and can provide a permanent treatment choice if others fail to work. The implants can be semi-rigid or inflatable. They can be pretty expensive and are not usually available on the NHS.

If you bike a lot and have a very narrow saddle on your bicycle, consider switching to a "no-nose seat" which is wider at the back than a conventional saddle, allowing more of your weight to be distributed to the sitting bones. Make sure the seat is level or angled slightly downward and at a height that allows your knee to be just slightly bent at the bottom of the pedal cycle. Raising the handlebars on your bike so that you're sitting upright may also help.
L-arginine is used by the body to increase and precursor to the production of human growth hormone, prolactin and several amino acids It even increases our sensitivity to insulin, analogously to body when we exercise, by accepting more glucose to enter into our cells and improve better cellular energy therefore less fatigue with much more stamina. L-arginine’s function in supporting our metabolic health are also extremely important for building stronger muscle tissue and potentially to help fight inflammation.
In the East, many herbal tonics and preparations are used to assist the aging male improve his ability to have sexual drive or perform penetrative sex by increasing sexual stimulation, erectile, ejaculatory, orgasmic and other responses for sexual function and satisfaction. Currently available herbals, tonics and therapies range from Tongkat Ali, Ginseng, Tribulus etc. Those that act as testosterone releasers have some value especially if the male has andropause and those containing some pick-me-ups II and energizers like ginseng help the tired and fatigued male and possibly those with asthenia. Deer horn contains growth factors and taking these may help improve nocturnal erections in the male with somatopause. Popular in historic Singapore were remedies such as “Penis Soup II” (Figure 2) and Snake Meat, whilst Surabaya was known for Cobra meat (Figure 3) and Cobra Blood which had claims of improving erectogenic prowess-these myths including that of taking dog, cow, wild boar, bull and ostrich testicles (Figures 10,​,11)11) are mainly Village doctor remedies still being practiced widely in the developing regions of Asia. In China, the horny goat weed (Figure 9) is currently still popular and may have some scientific merit (11) for enhancing sexual drive.
L-arginine is used by the body to increase and precursor to the production of human growth hormone, prolactin and several amino acids It even increases our sensitivity to insulin, analogously to body when we exercise, by accepting more glucose to enter into our cells and improve better cellular energy therefore less fatigue with much more stamina. L-arginine’s function in supporting our metabolic health are also extremely important for building stronger muscle tissue and potentially to help fight inflammation.
For a male, sexual performance carries an identity and the sense of self-esteem in his society. Thus, Sexual performance in the male has an unprecedented importance depending on the erectile function of the male sex organ. In daily life, it is very easy for men to admit having a sore throat or hemorrhoids. However, admitting to having erectile dysfunction is contrary to the male ego and especially so if the dysfunction occurs when he is at mid-life and is getting older and there any suspicion of him entering the phase of male menopause.

Vitamins and minerals are used in systems all over the body. Everywhere from your cardiovascular to your nervous system. It’s a lot to understand. So to help dispel some of the myths and outlandish claims, we’ll take a look at how five common vitamins and nutrients affect one very specific aspect of men’s health—erections. Turns out, vitamins can do more than just ward off the common cold.
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The field visits and excursions were arranged with the healers for places far from their homesteads or took place concurrently with the interviews and discussions. When going to the forests, game reserves or other areas where herbalists collect plant specimens, prior arrangements were made with the community leaders and park staff. This was done with individuals or groups depending on where the herbs are collected. In the shared areas such as the fishing villages, or the multiple use areas, group and individual excursions were conducted. Some of the medicinal plants that are harvested from distant places such as the Democratic Republic of Congo, other districts and unsafe areas within the reserve were not collected but their local names were recorded. The data collected were to supplement the information on plant names, plant parts used, collection of the herbarium voucher specimens and conservation status of these medicinal plants. The medicinal plants collected were given the voucher numbers and then later identified in Botany Department herbarium of Makerere University.


Phytolacca dodecandra leaves and roots are pounded and smeared on ripe banana and then the ripe banana roasted before being eaten for treating erectile dysfunction. However, care has to be taken Phytolacca dodecandra is poisonous. Cola acuminata fruits are mixed with other plants in Benin to treat primary and secondary sterility24. Cola acuminata is also said to be diuretic and laxative when administered orally24. Some Acacia species are regarded as aphrodisiacs in Niger2. Cassia species have high repute as drugs and poisons. For instance, Cassia sieberiana is used urinary problems, impotence and kidney diseases in Mali24. In Burkina Faso, Cassia occidentalis is used as a stimulant24. Flueggea virosa is famous medicine in African cultures. Flueggea virosa used in sterility, aphrodisiacs, stimulant, rheumatism, arthritis, spermatorrhoea, kidney and liver problems among many other diseases treated17,24.


In a 2005 study, three months of twice-daily sets of kegel exercises combined with biofeedback and advice on lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, losing weight, and limiting alcohol, worked far better than just giving the participants advice. “Wearing tight pants will affect impotence along with some other medical conditions like diabetes and heart disease,” which can also affect a man’s degree of impotence, Dr. Jennifer Burns, specializing in family practice with an emphasis on gastrointestinal health at the BienEtre Center, told Medical Daily.

Long considered an aphrodisiac by the Chinese, ginseng may do more than just rev your engine. A 2013 South Korean study found that taking the herb for just a few weeks improved guys’ performance in the bedroom, including helping them last longer before finishing. Meanwhile, a study in Spermatogenesis found that ginseng can also help make for harder, longer-lasting erections and improve testosterone levels, which in turn boosts libido. “Ginseng is a promising herbal therapy for ED because it helps promote relaxation of smooth muscle in the penis, increase dopamine levels in the brain, and increase pressure in the cavernosal nerves of the penis which helps nitric oxide synthesis,” Walker explains.
In the East, many herbal tonics and preparations are used to assist the aging male improve his sexual drive or ability to perform penetrative sex by increasing sexual stimulation, erectile, ejaculatory, orgasmic and other responses for sexual function and satisfaction. The herbs and tonics act as or as “pick-me-ups” and energizing tonics which help the tired and fatigued male and those with sexual asthenia. The myths and realities concerning Tongkat Ali, sea horse, cobra meat and blood, animal penises and testicles amongst many other herbs and portions for oral intake or local application used by traditional “medical” practitioners and village doctors will be discussed.
Erectile Dysfunction is extremely common in men and the number one herb to treat and heal erectile dysfunction is no doubt Tongkat Ali. The herb is commonly known as Malaysian Viagra or Natural Viagra even Herbal Viagra is known to be the best natural male herb, making it extremely valuable herb to restore manhood, virility and libido plus erection.  It stood the simple test, most lab evidence and experience from uses attest to its benefits vs Viagra like drugs.

Consider this:  penicillin, the first successful antibiotic, was derived from molds that inhibit bacterial growth.  Scientists had to figure out why the molds slowed bacteria, and refine the active ingredients.  Using herbal supplements is somewhat like putting mold on a wound.  It might help, a little, but it’s certainly not going to help as much as using penicillin.


L-arginine: L-arginine is an amino acid present in the proteins of all life forms. Also, referred to as arginine, this amino acid is required to carry out the synthesis of nitric oxide, which relaxes the blood vessels and allows more blood to flow through arteries (13). L-arginine has shown promise in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease and in the treatment of male infertility (13). With its anti-oxidant properties, L-arginine can be an integral part of any sexual wellness supplement.
Males suffer with slow, weak, soft or no erection at all due to various reasons, an occasional episode of erection failure is not a problem but if it occurs frequently it is relationship-breaker and hurts a male’s self-esteem badly. This can make a male depressed and completely disenchanted towards lovemaking. Tufan capsules are the best ED pills which provide fast, effective and safe natural erectile dysfunction treatment in a short time. These are herbal ED pills hence are safe for males of all ages and can be used without medical prescription.
ED can also occur as a side effect of some medications, for example some high blood pressure medications such as certain diuretics and beta blockers. If you think that a medication you are taking has a negative effect on your sex life, you should discuss this with your prescribing doctor. Your doctor may be able to recommend an alternative treatment.

The medical ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge were collected by visiting traditional healers and documenting the medicinal plants used and other socio-cultural aspects allied with sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction. The methods used to collect the relevant information regarding the medicinal plants used included informal and formal discussions, field visits and focused semi-structured interviews.
The medical ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge were collected by visiting traditional healers and documenting the medicinal plants used and other socio-cultural aspects allied with sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction. The methods used to collect the relevant information regarding the medicinal plants used included informal and formal discussions, field visits and focused semi-structured interviews.
A 2011 study of 160 men with moderate or severe erectile dysfunction divided the group in two—80 men were given niacin supplements, and 80 a placebo. The group given niacin reported improved ability to “maintain an erection versus the control group.” It’s not exhaustive research, but still promising. The best part about niacin is that it’s naturally found in foods like turkey, avocado, and peanuts (yum). If you’re not a turkey sandwich fan, you can supplement with a vitamin B complex.

Pycnogenol is the brand name of a product derived from the bark of a tree known as Pinus Pinaster. It is used for treating circulatory problems, asthma, allergies, high blood pressure, diabetes, women problems and as an anti-ageing supplement. It is acclaimed for its effect in boosting male fertility and is used widely in treatment of erectile dysfunction among men.

The treatment effect of both these treatments were tested by making the participants of the study fill up the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P) questionnaires before and after the treatment (i.e. maca extract supplementation or placebo). Higher score in these questionnaires mean better erectile function.
Arginine. The amino acid L-arginine, which occurs naturally in food, boosts the body's production of nitric oxide, a compound that facilitates erections by dilating blood vessels in the penis. Studies examining L-arginine's effectiveness against impotence have yielded mixed results. A 1999 trial published in the online journal BJU International found that high doses of L-arginine can help improve sexual function, but only in men with abnormal nitric oxide metabolism, such as that associated with cardiovascular disease. In another study, published in 2003 in the Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, Bulgarian scientists reported that ED sufferers who took L-arginine along with the pine extract pycnogenol saw major improvements in sexual function with no side effects. Arginine can be helpful, says Geo Espinosa, ND, director of the Integrative Urological Center at NYU Langone Medical Center. Espinosa says that men with known cardiovascular problems should take it only with a doctor's supervision; L-arginine can interact with some medications.

L-arginine, an amino acid that is naturally present in the body and helps make nitric oxide, supports a successful erection. Nitric oxide is responsible for making the blood vessels relax, which helps sustain an erection for men. A 1999 study, observed the effects of six weeks of high-dose (5 grams/day) orally administered nitric oxide (NO) donor L-arginine on men with organic ED. Thirty-one percent of those who took 5 grams/day of L-arginine experienced significant improvements in sexual function. Burns told Medical Daily, “l-arginine and deer antler velvet” have been the most popular go-to natural treatments for men.
Classically the neuro-physiology of ejaculation traces the 3 Phases in which ejaculation is a complex event involving the (I) the propulsion of sperm and seminal plasma into the prostatic urethra which is accompanied by (II) bladder neck closure and (III) coordinated contractions of the bulbocavernosus and ischiocavernosus muscles, striated muscles of the pelvic floor, lower limbs and trunk. In the Asian Society of the Aging Male Study [2004] 63% have reduced erection, 68% reduced or absent ejaculation and 19% pain or discomfort at ejaculation. Disorders of ejaculation can be due to: (I) disorders of production of sperm or seminal plasma/prostatic secretions (II) disorders of propulsion. In the case of anejaculation (absence of ejaculatory) which is the ultimate disorder of ejaculation, the causes can be best classified as (I) primary or secondary. After covering psychogenic causes of ejaculation failure, the organic causes due to non-dynamic and obstructive etiologies in the prepubertal and post pubertal male will be highlighted. More details will be given on retarded ejaculation, premature ejaculation, aspermia, painful and weak (poor propulsive force) ejaculation. The evaluation of the patient must include a detailed history taken from the patient and often his partner. Aside from haematologic tests, various forms of radiological and ultrasonic imaging, neurophysiologic studies may be required. For the general practitioner the commonest scenario will be in the ED Clinic with abundant men with performance anxiety presenting with premature ejaculation. In the male aging clinic lack of arousal is the commonest cause of retarded orgasm and ejaculation but this group is plagued by decreased touch sensitivity, the need for more direct stimulation, reduced drive to orgasm, a less intense orgasm, ejaculation being weaker and of reduced quantity and disturbing complaints of a longer recovery period and less number of attainable orgasms per day or week. Thus it is not mere rumor that “by the time a man reaches 55, the refractory period to ‘do it again for a man’ increases to 12 hours or even up to a week”. In the STD clinic, painful or bloody ejaculation is frequently seen. The Condom may cause condom retarded orgasm/ejaculation.
Penile implants - are generally used if physical damage (like an accident) makes the anatomical parts needed for an erection not work. These are inserted by surgery and can provide a permanent treatment choice if others fail to work. The implants can be semi-rigid or inflatable. They can be pretty expensive and are not usually available on the NHS.
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